Eczema is an inflammatory condition where your skin becomes very dry, itchy, and breaks out into red, flaky patches called flares.
There are different types of eczema – the most common is atopic dermatitis which tends to be more common in people whose immune system is overly sensitive to allergens. Atopic dermatitis affects one in five children. However, it’s still common for adults to have it, as well as other types of eczema that start in adult life.
Other types of eczema include:
Eczema is a chronic (long-term) condition which, if severe, can make it difficult to sleep and carry out your daily life. However, it can be controlled with moisturisers and avoiding things that cause it to flare.
You may have mild symptoms with just a small area of skin affected, or it can be severe with cracks, blisters and oozing on large areas of your skin.
Atopic eczema can be confused with other skin conditions, such as psoriasis. It’s important to get a proper diagnosis so you can get the right treatment.
Your GP will look at your skin to determine if you have eczema and what type it is. They’ll also ask if you have a family history of allergic skin conditions, or other allergy-related conditions such as hay fever and asthma.
They may ask you about your work or daily activities to find out about things that might be irritating your skin.
Sometimes, your GP will take a skin swab to check for infections or refer you to a dermatologist (a consultant specialising in skin condition).
Eczema often starts when your skin can’t maintain a healthy amount of moisture and becomes excessively dry and cracked. This makes it easier for irritants, such as soap, dust and viruses to get into your skin and make it worse.
Left unchecked, eczema often gets worse because the more you scratch it, the more irritated and cracked your skin becomes, increasing the risk of skin infection.
The earlier you treat your eczema, the better the outcome. Treatments include:
Avoidance of things that trigger your eczema, such as:
Your doctor will give you antibiotics if your skin is infected or antihistamines to reduce inflammation.
Other treatments for severe eczema are:
In very severe cases, your doctor may prescribe drugs that suppress your immune system.