16 July 2018
Despite there being a major increase in the awareness of coeliac disease – where gut lining is destroyed as a reaction to eating gluten – it is, says Gastroenterologist Dr Vani, more that people are ‘self-diagnosing’ and are probably suffering from a variety of other stomach problems.
Which, says Dr Vani, could mean they delay getting the correct treatment for their condition?
Here Dr Vani, who holds regular clinics at Spire Methley Park Hospital answers some of the most regularly asked questions about coeliac disease and the possible treatments available.
What exactly is coeliac disease?
Coeliac disease is an autoimmune disease in which you develop an allergy to the wheat protein gluten that promotes an inflammatory response in the small bowel resulting in villous atrophy.
There is a spectrum of increased inflammatory cells to complete villous atrophy and crypt hyperplasia that is the classical form of the disease.
Villi are small, finger-like projections in the small intestines that help you absorb nutrients. The blunting or flattening of these villi creates a loss of absorptive surface which means your body struggles to take in and process many of the nutrients contained in the food you eat.
Crypts are grooves between the villi and crypt hyperplasia is when the grooves are elongated compared to a normal intestinal lining which has short crypts.
How is it diagnosed?
A gastroenterologist would carry out a combination of blood tests that are markers of the antibodies causing the damage followed by an endoscopic biopsy where a camera is used to investigate the small intestine to allow cells to be studied at close range.
Very high antibody levels are almost certainly signs of coeliac disease but lower levels do not confirm the diagnosis and some individuals do not have measurable antibodies of the correct class so biopsy is indicated in all cases except young children with high antibody levels. The antibodies can be raised without disease, such as IBS or in Crohn’s disease.
If people think they may be suffering from it how long should they wait before seeing their GP
It is not an emergency but patients with untreated coeliac disease often have non GI (gastrointestinal) symptoms as well and these may also respond to treatment.
What treatments are available?
Basically the main treatment is gluten exclusion. This sounds simple but is quite difficult as wheat flour is so ubiquitous in manufactured foodstuffs.
The advent of the 'free from' ranges in supermarkets has improved things greatly and the gluten free products have massively improved over the last few years. It is no longer like eating cardboard!
You do need to monitor your progress and occasionally need medicines to support the process and replace deficient vitamins.
Can most people, once correctly diagnosed, lead a relatively normal life?
Definitely. Once the diet is under control all sufferers should be able to lead a normal life. We no longer see patients who had prematurely aged with terrible bones.
What problems can not getting diagnosed create?
There is an increased rate of cancers in patients with untreated coeliac disease but these are still rare but the GI symptoms can be disabling and the nutritional deficits can result in anaemia and osteoporosis.