08 January 2018
Stress, over indulgence and a lack of exercise can see many of us suffering rather uncomfortable bouts of indigestion.
Dr Bowling, a Consultant Gastroenterologist at Spire Nottingham Hospital, considers the causes of indigestion, how we treat it and what we have to do to avoid it altogether.
But he warned that people suffering indigestion regularly and for an extended period of time could actually be mistaking the symptom for something more sinister and urged them to see their GP or Gastroenterologist.
What is indigestion?
Indigestion is a very vague term that is used to describe symptoms that are attributable to the oesophagus, stomach and small intestine (duodenum). The symptoms are often pain or discomfort aggravated by eating or drinking - the feeling of nausea after food or the sensation of being over full. Also heartburn and reflux can also be described as indigestion.
How is it usually caused?
It is classically caused by acid reflux disease, gastritis (inflammation of the stomach) or ulcers in the stomach or small intestine. The stomach has natural defence against stomach acid but if this defence is damaged then problems can arise from naturally occurring acid.
The oesophagus on the other hand has no natural protection so acid refluxing out of the stomach into the oesophagus will cause symptoms. Helicobacter pylori - a bacteria frequently found in peoples stomach - can tip the balance towards damage from stomach acid.
Other things that increase stomach acid production can promote symptoms. These include smoking, acidic drinks such as wine and fruit juices and spicy food. Stress is another possible trigger.
Are there any causes that people aren’t so aware of?
The bottom of the oesophagus (gullet) has a muscle that tries to prevent reflux. However, this muscle can be relaxed by alcohol, caffeine and, perhaps more surprisingly, by chocolate. Late night chocolate treats can classically results in nocturnal heartburn.
What about alcohol – are spirits more likely to bring on a bout of indigestion than beers or lagers?
All alcohol will relax the lower oesophagus and promote reflux but fizzy drinks, such as lager, are more likely to cause reflux, especially when drunk in larger volumes. However all alcohol will cause some damage to the stomach so don’t believe the medical myth that you can use brandy to settle your stomach!
Besides abstaining from alcohol and saying ‘no’ to tasty treats what measures can people take to avoid indigestion?
Eating and drinking a number of hours before going to bed is a good option, rather than retiring with a full stomach. Smaller and frequent meals tend to help as well. If reflux is the major issue propping the head of the bed on a couple of bricks or using more pillows helps increase the effect of gravity at night, thus reducing reflux.
Does a pint of milk at the start of the evening help or is that an ‘old wives tale’ started by the dairy industry?
Milk can soothe the lining of the oesophagus and stomach, but only temporarily. So any claim to a longer-lasting benefit is another ‘medical myth’, even though it is a fact that before the advent of modern anti-acid drugs, patients with ulcers were often treated with milk drips direct to the stomach.
If you do get indigestion what is the best way of treating it?
Modern drugs such as the proton pump inhibitors or PPIs (omeprazole etc.) have transformed the management of indigestion and ulcer disease by reducing acid production very dramatically. Also H2 blockers, such as ranitidine, reduce acid production. However, many of the over-the-counter remedies are only antacids that will neutralise the stomach acid for a relatively short period.
What conditions could the symptoms of indigestion be hiding?
The real worry about indigestion is that it could be masking something much more sinister. If lifestyle issues and a short course or tablets/medicine - maybe two weeks of treatment - does not resolve the issue then seeking medical advice is sensible.
The diseases that mimic indigestion are stomach and pancreatic cancer and gallbladder disease. Ulcers of the stomach and small intestine need to be diagnosed and treated effectively as the huge majority are curable without prolonged treatment.
Increasing age of the patient and new onset of symptoms are indicators to investigate further. Oesophageal cancer can give symptoms similar to reflux and any sensation of food sticking and painful swallowing require urgent investigation. Visit you GP or a gastroenterologist as soon as possible.
If you would like more information or would like to see a gastroenterologist call 0115 937 7801 or email NTGbookings@spirehealthcare.com