A cystolitholapaxy procedure is used to treat bladder stones. A transurethral cystolitholaplaxy is the most common procedure for adults with bladder stones, occasionally a percutaneous suprapubic cystolitholapaxy may be used when patients have very large bladder stones, and this is the preferred treatment for children.

During the transurethral cystolitholapaxy procedure the surgeon inserts a micro-telescope, known as a cystoscope, up the urethra into the bladder. The surgeon is then able to locate the stones. The cystoscope then uses its forceps device to grab the stones and break them up to make the stones small enough to be flushed out of the bladder with fluids. Sometimes lasers or ultrasound waves are used to break up the stone, similar to kidney stone treatment.

The procedure usually takes 30-60 minutes depending on the size of the stones. Patients will be given either an epidural or a general anaesthetic.

A percutaneous suprapubic cystolitholapaxy involves making an incision in the lower abdomen and then through into the bladder to remove the stones. A small microscope locates the stones, and once identified they are broken up and removed.