Ocular and Peri-ocular pain

  • Orbital Apex syndrome
  • Parasellar syndrome
  • Angle Closure Glaucoma
  • Optic Neuritis
  • Orbital Cellulitis
  • Pain due to Ear disease
  • Ramsay Hunt syndrome
  • Otitis Externa and Interna
  • Mastoiditis
  • Disorders of the Midface
  • Chronic paranasal sinusitis
    Related disorders
  • Hemifacial spasm

Click on each syndrome below to view more information:


The cavernous sinus area is located within the head and contains an artery, the pituitary gland, two sinuses and five nerves. And they are all housed within a tiny but complex structure. The cavernous sinus syndrome occurs when a disease appears that affects one or more cavernous sinus components.


In Tolosa-Hunt syndrome, inflammation of the cavernous sinus (behind the eyes) causes severe eye pain and irritation or damage of the nerves of the face. Males and females are affected equally by Tolosa-Hunt syndrome, which usually affects people more than 20 years old.

Tolosa-Hunt syndrome begins with severe pain behind or around one eye that comes on suddenly. The pain can be constant and intense. As the sinus inflammation increases and spreads, nerves in the face can be affected, producing symptoms such as drooping eyelid (ptosis) of the affected eye or numbness and tingling in the forehead. Difficulty controlling eye movements (ophthalmoplegia) and the pupil may cause sensitivity to light and double or blurred vision. If left untreated, vision loss is possible.